The AGC group
The AGC group contains the cyclic-nucleotide-dependent family (PKA and PKG), the protein kinase C family, the β-adrenergic receptor kinase (βARK), the ribosomal S6 family and other close relatives. These kinases have a strong preference for phosphorylation of Ser/Thr residues in close proximity to the basic amino acids Lysine and Arginine. The PKA, PKG and S6 kinases have basic residues in specific positions N-terminal to the phosphate acceptor site. PKC and RAC have substrates with basic residues on both sides of the acceptor site. The G-protein coupled receptor kinases (βARK and relatives) diverge from this, preferring synthetic substrate residues within an acidic environment.
The related group CAMK
also tend to be directed towards substrates containing basic residues.
Zhu G, Fujii K, Liu Y, Codrea V, Herrero J, Shaw S.
A single pair of acidic residues in the kinase major groove mediates strong substrate preference for P-2 or P-5 arginine in the AGC, CAMK, and STE kinase families.
J Biol Chem.
Mora A, Komander D, van Aalten DM, Alessi DR.
PDK1, the master regulator of AGC kinase signal transduction.
Semin Cell Dev Biol.
Bö L, Okré L, Henriques R, Anthony RG.
Growth signalling pathways in Arabidopsis and the AGC protein kinases.
Trends Plant Sci.